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Mental illnesses are a significant issue of concern among African Americans. Typically, they refer to various psychiatric disorders that influence persons behavior, mood, and thinking. Usually, they manifest themselves as anxiety disorder, depression, schizophrenia, and addictive behavior. In the African American community, schizophrenia is a complex mental health challenge because of several causes, diagnosis, and nursing interventions.

Description of the Community Issue

Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder associated with delusions, hallucinations, and the lack of clarity and concentration. In the African American community, the disease is attributed to socioeconomic or adverse life conditions, and other mental illnesses. Exposure to violence, substance abuse, racial discrimination, and poverty constitute critical factors that cause schizophrenia. For instance, substantial cannabis abuse among other drugs, such as alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, are stressors that contribute to the disease. The prevalence of drug abuse in the community is attributed mainly to racial discrimination and stigma related to negative societal perceptions. Continued exposure to violence, particularly among women and children, contribute to the emergence of schizophrenia in the future. It is challenging to address the cause of this problem due to the lack of awareness, sociocultural beliefs, and negligence on the part of the government. The problem is worsened by widespread misdiagnoses, poorer outcomes, and inaccessible care. There is a lack of mental health services within the African American community. On the other hand, those available are characterized by providers biasness due to the absence of cultural competence and the inequality of care. As such, it is crucial to address the issue from causes to nursing interventions.

Interventions

Currently, public hospitals and community health centers feature an element of cultural competence in the provision of mental health care for the community. Health care facilities now rely on services of not-for-profit providers or mental health programs to deliver care to the vulnerable in society. Moreover, they use a psychological awareness campaign to educate the community about schizophrenia and its implications. Furthermore, through the Obama Care Act, more African Americans have access to insurance coverage and health care. Besides, the community has received faith-based interventions, which are culturally sensitive and acceptable . As such, it has proved to be a more efficient method than hospital-based care. It is because the former addresses mental illnesses from the sociocultural perspective unlike the latter, which emphasizes the correct diagnosis and treatment.

Personal Thoughts

Mental health is a manageable issue in the African American community. Factors contributing to the problem are known and well-documented, which include the lack of cultural competence among care providers, inequality of care, sociocultural factors, discrimination, health care inaccessibility, and substance abuse. I believe that through the faith-based intervention and an aggressive awareness campaign, the mental health issue can be reduced significantly . Moreover, there is a need to invest considerable resources in screening for mental health illnesses.

Cognitive Concerns

Cognitive impairments among patients with schizophrenia revolve around domains of processing speed, episodic and working memory, as well as executive function. In this context, cognitive issues arise because schizophrenia alters the neural system that supports cognitive functions. Interventions for this problem may include pharmacologic treatment that comprises dopamine and psycho-stimulants among others . As such, it is essential to consider this aspect in formulating intervention measures for the mental health issue.

Care Plan

Priority nursing diagnoses for schizophrenia can be categorized into risk for violence, altered thought processes, and social isolation among others. The first is related to patients anger tendencies, irritability, verbal and nonverbal aggression, and limited attention. Based on the nursing diagnosis list developed by the Nurse American Nursing Diagnosis Association , risk for violence falls in Domain 9 defined by coping or stress tolerance. Altered thought processes are related to delusional thinking, divided attention, regular thought shifts, escalated reaction to standard stimuli, daydreaming, and inconsistent communication. The diagnosis in this category falls in Domain 5 in the nursing diagnosis list related to perception and cognition . Furthermore, social isolation is related to sad facial expressions, signs of depression, as well as limited social interaction and eye contact. Social isolation falls in Domain 7 in the diagnosis list. Risk for violence is diagnosed as evidenced by affective mood symptoms characterized by anxiety or agitation, fear, and disturbed body image . Altered thought processes are evidenced by cognitive symptoms that encompass disturbed sensory perception, hallucinations, and delusions. Lastly, social isolation is evidenced by deficit symptoms, which include ineffective coping strategies and role performance, as well as the inability to feel pleasure and to express emotions.

Intervention in the NIC Language and Outcomes in NOC

Risk for Violence

A nursing intervention in this category includes active listening, anger control assistance, anxiety reduction , and behavior management with over-activity/inattention. Active listening helps to reduce verbal and nonverbal aggression by attaching significance to patient communication. Anger control assistance and anxiety reduction help to manage anger and reduce irritability by allowing its expression in a nonviolent and adaptive manner. Behavior management, including over-activity/inattention, addresses issues related to limited attention. It involves the provision of the therapeutic milieu that accommodates the patient attention shortcoming and allows for optimal functioning.

Primarily, desired outcomes under this category include aggression self-control and anxiety self-control. Here patients exhibit self-restraint regarding assaultive, combative, and destructive behavior, as well as the reduced feeling of apprehension, tension, and restlessness. As such, achieving these outcomes, the one can be considered to have recovered.

Altered Thought Processes

Here, cognitive restructuring and cognitive stimulationare ideal nursing intervention measures in this category. These methods allow patients to develop the clarity of mind and to view the world more realistically . As such, they address problems related to delusional thinking, shift in thoughts, and divided attention. On the other hand, cognitive stimulation helps persons become aware of their surrounding by use of planned stimuli. Consequently, it cures an escalated reaction to standard stimuli among other problems.

Communication, including expressive and receptive, constitutes the desired outcome under this category. The two types point to organized thoughts. They explain the patients ability to express meanings, as well as to receive and interpret verbal and nonverbal messages. Moreover, the self-control of a distorted thought is also a prominent outcome under this category. This result defines the patients ability to achieve self-restraint related to disruption in thought content and processes, as well as perception. Other outcomes include cognition and cognitive orientation . The former refers to the patients ability to execute complex mental processes, while the latter encompasses the capacity to identify the environment and time accurately.

Social Isolation

There are numerous nursing interventions for social isolation, which include family involvement promotion and behavior modification with social skills . Besides these methods, others include reality orientation and recreation therapy . The former encompasses measures aimed at restoring patients identity, time, and environmental awareness, while the latter intends to relax and improves patient social skills through purposeful recreation. On the other hand, behavior modification helps to develop interpersonal social skills to facilitate social interaction . Lastly, family involvement promotion helps patients connect with their keens by involving them in physical and emotional care. Ultimately, these approaches to treatment develop the sense of belonging in patients improving their social life. Improved self-esteem is an indication of a better social life because it relates to how a person judges ones self-worth. Moreover, other outcomes indicative of an improved social life include social interaction skills and social involvement. Here, a patient demonstrates the capacity to interact with positive behavior that fosters effective relationships.

Outcomes in all categories of diagnosis explained above are assessed based on various models. Some of these include a psychological state exam, risk assessment, and an evaluation of a free crisis line. Moreover, outcomes can be evaluated through diagnostic imaging, and the rate of enrolment and participation in peer support groups. These methods apply to almost all categories of nursing interventions above.

Conclusion

Ideally,schizophrenia is a complex mental health challenge. It is caused by a variety of factors and requires complex medical and nursing interventions. Mainly, the mental health of African Americans is characterized by misdiagnoses, poorer outcomes, and the inaccessibility of care. However, these problems are solvable through the faith-based intervention, proper diagnosis and treatment, and social skills development.

About author 

Sabina work as an writer at https://place-4-papers.com/write-my-nursing-evidence-based-assignment/ . She likes this activity because Sabina can use her creative abilities and at the same time learn a lot of new information, improve her skills, receive a nice financial reward. She has considerable experience in writing scientific and artistic works. She has worked with different clients, so she knows how to find a common language with everyone.

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